Hazardous Waste

Hazardous waste is defined in Article 3 (2) of the Waste Framework Directive (2008/98/EC) and Section 192KA (1) as:

  • 1- “Waste which displays one or more of the hazardous properties listed in Annex III”.
  • 2- “Waste marked with an asterisk and listed in Part 1 of Schedule IIA of the Public Health Act” (this corresponds to the European Waste Catalogue).

The properties of waste which render it hazardous (Annex III).

H1 ‘Explosive’: Substances and preparations which may explode under the effect of flame or which are more sensitive to shocks or friction than dinitrobenzene
H2 ‘Oxidising’: Substances and preparations which exhibit highly exothermic reactions when in contact with other substances, particularly flammable substances.
H3-A ‘Highly flammable’:

  • Liquid substances and preparations having a flash point below 21°C (including extremely flammable liquids), or
  • Substances and preparations which may become hot and finally catch fire in contact with air at ambient temperature without any application of energy, or
  • Solid substances and preparations which may readily catch fire after brief contact with a source of ignition and which continue to burn or to be consumed after removal of the source of ignition, or
  • Gaseous substances and preparations which are flammable in air at normal pressure, or
  • Substances and preparations which, in contact with water or damp air, evolve highly flammable gases in dangerous quantities.
H3-B ‘Flammable’: Liquid substances and preparations having a flash point equal to or greater than 21°C and less than or equal to 55°C.
H4 ‘Irritant’: Non-corrosive substances and preparations which, through immediate, prolonged or repeated contact with the skin or mucous membrane, can cause inflammation.
H5 ‘Harmful’: Substances and preparations which, if they are inhaled or ingested or if they penetrate the skin, may involve limited health risks.
H6 ‘Toxic’: Substances and preparations (including very toxic substances and preparations) which, if they are inhaled, ingested or if they penetrate the skin, may involve serious, acute or chronic health risks and even death.
H7 ‘Carcinogenic’: Substances and preparations which, if they are inhaled or ingested or if they penetrate the skin, may induce cancer or increase its incidence.
H8 ‘Corrosive’: Substances and preparations which may destroy living tissue on contact.
H9 ‘Infectious’: Substances and preparations containing viable micro-organisms or their toxins which are known or reliably believed to cause disease in man or other living organisms.
H10 ‘Toxic for reproduction’: Substances and preparations which, if they are inhaled or ingested or if they penetrate the skin, may induce non-hereditary congenital malformations or increase their incidence.
H11 ‘Mutagenic’: Substances and preparations which, if they are inhaled, ingested or if they penetrate the skin, may induce hereditary genetic defects or increase their incidence.
H12 Waste which releases toxic or very toxic gases in contact with water, air or an acid.
H13 ‘Sensitizing’: Substances and preparations which, if they are inhaled or if they penetrate the skin, are capable of eliciting a reaction of hypersensitization such that on further exposure to the substance or preparation, characteristic adverse effects are produced.
H14 ‘Ecotoxic’: Waste which presents or may present immediate or delayed risks for one or more sectors of the environment.
H15 Waste capable by any means, after disposal, of yielding another substance, e.g. a leachate, which possesses any of the characteristics above.

As regards H3 to H8, H10 and H11, the wastes must also display the following characteristics:

  • a – Flash point <=55°C
  • b – One or more substances classified as very toxic at a total concentration >= 0.1%
  • c – One or more substances classified as toxic at a total concentration >= 3%
  • d – One or more substances classified as harmful at a total concentration >= 25%
  • e – One or more corrosive substances classified as R35 at a total concentration >= 1%
  • f – One or more corrosive substances classified as R34 at a total concentration >= 5%
  • g – One or more irritant substances classified as R41 at a total concentration >= 10%
  • h – One or more irritant substances classified as R36, R37, R38 at a total concentration >= 20%
  • i – One substance known to be carcinogenic of category 1 or 2 at a concentration >= 0.1%
  • j – One substance known to be carcinogenic of category 3 at a concentration >= 1%
  • k – One substance toxic for reproduction of category 1 or 2 classified as R60, R61 at a concentration >=0.5%
  • l – One substance toxic for reproduction of category 3 classified as R62, R63 at a concentration >= 5%
  • m – One mutagenic substance of category 1 or 2 classified as R46 at a concentration >= 1%